Patterns and processes of food security in the peri urban village of Gabane in Botswana
PublisherUniversity of Botswana, www.ub.bw
MetadataShow full item record
The aim of this study was to assess the patterns and processes governing food security among the households of Gabane and establish the strategies they adopted to minimize their vulnerability to food insecurity. The study paid particular attention to the food security of that segment of the population that resides in the peri-urban area because of its vulnerability to forces of urbanization (i.e. those whose agricultural land had been appropriated by Government authorities). Therefore, the study set out to identify households vulnerable to food insecurity; examine the level and extent of food security for different households in Gabane; determine the causes of household vulnerability to food insecurity and established the strategies adopted by households to minimize their vulnerability to food insecurity. The study used qualitative and quantitative data sources which comprised of secondary data, key informant interviews and household surveys. The study adopted the AFSUN conceptual framework that demonstrates the multiple factors influencing household food security and focused its attention on the direct drivers of food security. The study revealed that households whose ploughing lands had been appropriated by Land Board Authorities, the elderly and those who had lower income were vulnerable to food insecurity. Land appropriation affected the food security status of many households negatively. In addition, most households (89%) were food insecure with a few (11%) being food secure. Moreover, there was a statistically significant relationship (χ2= 30.039, P= 0.003) between income and food security. Also food insecurity tended to increase with household size. One of the causes of household vulnerability identified was land appropriation, which caused households to rely on cash and food purchases. Consequently, the households became vulnerable to high food prices causing them to cut back on their food purchases and consumption. Due to this, households had to rely on less preferred and less expensive food stuff and reduced the number of meals per day. They also had to negotiate for small portion of land to plough, rented off some of their houses and enrolled in Government self-reliance programme (ipelegeng). The study concludes that as peri-urbanites are being constantly pushed out of their ploughing lands, their food security is being threatened and they are being dispossessed of their means of producing food. Therefore, there is a need to protect the land rights of those dependent on land to ensure their food security.