A mortality review of tuberculosis and HIV co-infected patients in Mahalapye, Botswana: does cotrimoxazole preventive therapy and/or antiretroviral therapy protect against death?
Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A.
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Background: The World Health Organization aims to reduce tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate from 15% in 2015 to 6.5% by 2025. Aim: This study determined the profile of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients who died in Mahalapye District, Botswana, while on anti-TB medication and the factors that contributed to such outcome. Setting: The study was conducted in the Mahalapye Health District in Botswana. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that reviewed patient records from the Mahalapye District Health Management Team Electronic Tuberculosis Register from January 2013 to December 2015. Results: The majority of the TB and HIV co-infected patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (486 81.63%]) or were initiated cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) (518 [87.2%]) while taking anti-TB treatment. Seventy-three (13.6%) TB and HIV co-infected patients died before completing anti-TB treatment. Three-quarters (54 [74.4%]) of patients who died before completing anti-TB treatment were on ART, among them two patients who were on ART at least 3 months prior to commencing anti-TB. Also, the majority (64 [87.7%]) of TB and HIV coinfected patients were commenced on CPT prior to death. There was a bimodal density curve of death occurrence in those who did not commence ART and in those who did not commence CPT. Conclusion: This study established that TB and HIV co-infected patients had a TB mortality of 13.6%. A high mortality rate was observed during the first 3 months in those who did not take ART and during the second and the fifth month in those who did not commence CPT. Further study is needed to clarify this matter