HIV infection: its impact on patients with appendicitis in Botswana
Bedada, Alemayehu Ginbo
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Background: To compare the presentation, management, and outcome of HIV-positive patients with appendicitis to those of HIV-negative patients with appendicitis. Summary Background Data: The literature is limited regarding the impact of HIV infection on patients with appendicitis. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with appendicitis and known HIV status admitted to Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone, Botswana, aged 13 years and greater was performed from January 2013 to December 2015. Data on patient demographics, presentation, laboratory findings, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Results: A total of 295 patients with appendicitis and known HIV status were identified, of which 119 (40.3%) were HIV positive. The median [IQR] ages for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were 34 [29–42] and 26 [20–33] years, respectively. The male-to-female ratio for the same two groups was 0.8:1 and 1.4:1, respectively. Presenting symptoms, signs, and white blood cell count were similar in both groups. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher overall (4.2 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.010) and postoperative (4.4 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.024) mortality rates. There was no significant difference in the total complication rate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (13.2 vs. 7.9%, p = 0.192). Compared to HIV-positive patients with a CD4 count C200, patients with a CD4 count\200 have a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate (17.6 vs. 1.4%, p = 0.023) and a trend toward a higher total postoperative complication rate (31.3 vs. 10.8%, p = 0.054). Conclusion: Within our setting, HIV infection, particularly with a CD4\200, was correlated with significantly higher mortality in patients with acute appendicitis.