Microbiology of urinary tract infections in Gaborone, Botswana
Goldfarb, David M.
Renuart, Andrew J.
Tawanana, Ephraim O.
Steenhoff, Andrew P.
Silverman, Jonathan A.
PublisherPublic Library Science, https://phys.org/partners/public-library-of-science/
MetadataShow full item record
Objective: The microbiology and epidemiology of UTI pathogens are largely unknown in Botswana, a high prevalence HIV setting. Using laboratory data from the largest referral hospital and a private hospital, we describe the major pathogens causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. Methods: This retrospective study examined antimicrobial susceptibility data for urine samples collected at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH), Bokamoso Private Hospital (BPH), or one of their affiliated outpatient clinics. A urine sample was included in our dataset if it demonstrated pure growth of a single organism and accompanying antimicrobial susceptibility and subject demographic data were available. Results: A total of 744 samples were included. Greater than 10% resistance was observed for amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance of E. coli isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was greater than 60% in all settings. HIV status did not significantly impact the microbiology of UTIs, but did impact antimicrobial resistance to co-trimoxazole. Conclusions: Data suggests that antimicrobial resistance has already emerged to most oral antibiotics, making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin should not be used as empiric treatment for UTI in this context. Nitrofurantoin could be used for simple cystitis; aminoglycosides for uncomplicated UTI in inpatients.